Saturday, March 21, 2020
American expansionism has a huge impact to the world power position held by the country today. The adventure is now deeply rooted in foreign relations. Historically, various periods related to the American foreign relations growth include cold war, territorial expansionism and Vietnam War. According to Divine (2002), the end of U.S. struggle in conflict of dictating imperialists brought about the War with inhabitants in the aim of improving or expanding land resources, which went on from the later eighteenth century until the 1900s.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on American transformed timeline for the years 1780 to 1850 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More America began growing prosperously as an industrial country during the 1780 to 1850; therefore, the expansionism played an enormous part in determining the US foreign relations. On the word of Divine (2002), the increases in economical demands such as the industrial supplies was one of the route cause of impartial Americas search for the international markets especially for clearance of surpluses. Unlike the French and British governments who involved traditional empires, the Americans implemented the imperialism or the open markets to enhance economical potentials and boost the economy. Imperialism therefore assisted America to accommodate external relations for extra foreign financial support and stronger relations. Strategy to accommodate foreign relations especially during the 1780 to 1850 was in the aim of capturing novel markets and venture into new niches as opposed to supporting human constitutional rights or democracy. In understanding the meaning and emergence of expansionism, there is need to understand the experiences of people in eighteenth-century and the manifestos their leader made concerning foreign relations. The American expansionism is highly justifiable as a domesticated plan and therefore was of great significan ce to the residence during the pre-colonial era or because partially it represented progress (Divine, 2002). It was a vision many had anticipated because it would domesticate and equalize the rule of law to norms status of civilization such as, getting rid of the upheaval status of Civil War. The Americans were in full support because of believing that work and life would have a better meaning. The growth of a country especially the establishment of the constitution emerged from the existence of peace even decades before the war. The American vision for democracy or a unified nation in pursuit of better destiny is therefore a major contributor to the vision of expansionism. In the 1780 to 1850 era Americans had the expansionism vision in the context of territorial growth and to most leaders or potential kings, the new American territories meant higher opportunities to gunner stronger individual heroic resourcefulness and successes in battles as opposed to the economical success.Adve rtising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the era forced the domestic expansionism, many other great minds had a different view and embraced a more antagonistic expansionism involving foreign relations. Majority of the Americans still had expansion plans even after the Wars and are the current viable expansionists because of establishing bigger commercial empires. The aggressiveness of economists advocated for a worldwide practice of economical growth as opposed to the expansionism expressed by the aggressive private armies in support of filibustering. The government due to its failure to arrest or sanction perpetrators arguably supported the Wars. The main aim was to gain the territorial concession but the need for physical advantage became perplexing or mystifying among most Americans, and eventually there was need for finding governed Patent Intentions. The law therefore brought in enthusiasm for territorial expansion in a more sensible manner. According to Brinkley (2007), even before the civil war, there were debates among politicians on territorial expansionism, where by some were in support for while others were against expansionism for one reason or another. The establishment of the laws therefore had a major contribution to expansionism. References Brinkley, A. (2007). American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Vol. 1 New York: McGraw- Hill Press Divine, R. A. (2002). America past and present, London, England: Longman press. This research paper on American transformed timeline for the years 1780 to 1850 was written and submitted by user Jocelyn King to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Learn About the Crimean War The Crimean War is perhaps remembered mostly for the Ã¢â¬Å"Charge of the Light Brigade,Ã¢â¬ a poem written about a disastrous episode when British cavalry valiantly attacked the wrong objective in a battle. The war was also significant for the pioneering nursing of Florence Nightingale, the reporting of a man considered the first war correspondent, and the first use of photography in a war. The war itself, however, arose from muddled circumstances. The conflict between superpowers of the day was fought between allies Britain and France against Russia and its Turkish ally. The result of the war did not make enormous changes in Europe. Although rooted in longstanding rivalries, the Crimean War erupted over what was obviously a pretext involving religion of populations in the Holy Land. It was almost as if the large powers in Europe wanted a war at that time to keep each other in check, and they found an excuse to have it. Causes of the Crimean War In the early decades of the 19th century, Russia had grown into a mighty military power. By 1850 Russia appeared to be intent on spreading its influence southward. Britain was concerned that Russia would expand to the point where it held power over the Mediterranean. The French emperor Napoleon III, in the early 1850s, had forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize France as a sovereign authority in the Holy Land. The Russian tsar objected and began his own diplomatic maneuvering. The Russians claimed to be protecting the religious freedom of Christians in Holy Land. War Declared By Britain and France Somehow the obscure diplomatic wrangling led to open hostilities, and Britain and France declared war against Russia on March 28, 1854. The Russians appeared willing, at first, to avoid war. But demands put forth by Britain and France were not met, and a larger conflict seemed unavoidable. The Invasion of the Crimea In September 1854 the allies struck the the Crimea, a peninsula in the present day Ukraine. The Russians had a large naval base at Sevastopol, on the Black Sea, which was the ultimate target of the invasion force. The British and French troops, after landing at Calamita Bay, began marching southward toward Sevastopol, which was approximately 30 miles away. The allied armies, with about 60,000 troops, encountered a Russian force at the River Alma and a battle ensued. The British commander, Lord Raglan, who had not been in combat since losing an arm at Waterloo nearly 30 years earlier, had considerable trouble coordinating his attacks with his French allies. Despite these problems, which would become common throughout the war, the British and French routed the Russian army, which fled. The Russians regrouped at Sevastopol. The British, bypassing that major base, attacked the town of Balaclava, which had a harbor that could be used as a supply base. Ammunition and siege weapons began to be unloaded, and the allies prepared for an eventual attack on Sevastopol. The British and French began an artillery bombardment of Sevastopol on October 17, 1854. The time-honored tactic did not seem to have much effect. On October 25, 1854, the Russian commander, Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, ordered an attack on the allied lines. The Russians attacked a weak position and stood a good chance of reaching the town of Balaclava until they were repulsed heroically by Scottish Highlanders. Charge of the Light Brigade As the Russians were fighting the Highlanders, another Russian unit began removing British guns from an abandoned position. Lord Raglan ordered his light cavalry to prevent that action, but his orders got confused and the legendary Charge of the Light Brigade was launched against the wrong Russian position. The 650 men of the regiment raced into certain death, and at least 100 men were killed in the first minutes of the charge. The battle ended with the British having lost a lot of ground, but with the standoff still in place. Ten days later the Russians attacked again. In what was known as the Battle of the Inkermann, the armies fought in very wet and foggy weather. That day ended with high casualties on the Russian side, but again the fighting was indecisive. The Siege Continued As the winter weather approached and conditions deteriorated, the fighting came to a virtual halt with the siege of Sevastopol still in place. During the winter of 1854-55 the war became an ordeal of disease and malnutrition. Thousands of troops died of exposure and contagious illnesses spread through the camps. Four times as many troops died of illness than combat wounds. In late 1854 Florence Nightingale arrived in Constantinople and began treating British troops in hospitals. She was shocked by the appalling conditions she encountered. The armies stayed in trenches throughout the spring of 1855, and assaults on Sevastopol were finally planned for June 1855. Attacks on fortresses protecting the city were launched and repulsed on June 15, 1855, thanks largely to incompetence by the British and French attackers. The British commander, Lord Raglan, had taken ill and died on June 28, 1855. Another attack on Sevastopol was launched in September 1855, and the city finally fell to the British and French. At that point the Crimean War was essentially over, though some scattered fighting went on until February 1856. Peace was finally declared in late March 1856. Consequences of the Crimean War While the British and French did eventually capture their objective, the war itself could not be considered a great success. It was marked by incompetence and what was widely perceived as needless loss of life. The Crimean War did check the Russian expansionist tendencies. But Russia itself was not really defeated, as the Russian homeland was not attacked.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Ethical and moral dilemmas in regards Ebola - Research Paper Example Here in this study ethical and moral dilemmas of the disease around the world will be analysed. The study will include research question or objective, methodology and findings and analysis. Research question is significantly important and an integral part of any research paper. Research question helps the researcher to build a whole research report. It poses lots of questions that other people care about. According to Bordage and Dawson, research question is one of the most important components of any research paper. It provides a clear picture about the research topic. Research question guides the research outcome. Without the help of research question a research paper cannot find the proper direction. Here in this case the research question is whether the world is facing ethical and moral dilemmas related with Ebola. According to Enemark & Selgelid, (2012), ethical and moral dilemmas are quite evident in the cases of various infectious diseases. They have stated that ethical and moral dilemmas are not new factors as far as the infectious diseases are concerned. It is an age old issue that the global fraternity is facing since long. The authors have categorically stated that nurses and doctors are also human being. They have the equal chances of being impacted by the infectious diseases. But on the other hand healing patients is the fundamental objective for the doctors and nurses. So there is a huge scope of ethical and moral dilemmas. According to them these kinds of ethical and moral dilemmas are common and automatic in nature. There is nothing astonishing into it. It is often being noticed that patients affected by the infectious diseases are generally being kept at the isolation chambers where entry and exists are restricted. The authors have stated that doctors and nurses take extra precaut ions before entering into those isolation chambers. But still there remains a sense of moral and ethical dilemma. Doctors and nurses feel
Monday, February 3, 2020
Oncrete history - Essay Example It is in the form of dark, and porous nodules that are ground using a small amount of gypsum giving cement. Concrete; this is a hard, compact material used for building, and is formed by a mixture of gravel, cement, water, and sand when they undergo hydration. Cure; this is the act of keeping concrete moist on the initial hardening. Deformation; changing the dimensions of structures using a force. Dormancy period; the period that concrete retains it workability. Elasticity; The capability of materials to retain the original shape after getting stretched. Forms; are the holders where concrete is placed during hardening. Hydration; reaction of water with cement to form a cement paste. Mortar; is a Cement paste that has been mixed with sand. Pozzuoli cement; is a Volcanic rock powdered, used for making hydraulic cement. Portland cement; this is a cement consisting mainly of calcium silicates react with water forming a hard mass. Workability; this is how easily fresh concrete can be plac ed and consolidated in forms. 3.0 Text. 3.0. Introduction to Concrete. Concrete, can be defined as a composite material used in construction composed mainly of aggregate, water, and cement. It has several formulations, which give properties that tend to vary. This aggregate consists crushed rocks or coarse gravel like granite or limestone this is mixed with other fine aggregate like sand. Cement, usually the Portland cement, and Cementitious materials like slag cement and fly ash are used as a binder in the aggregate. Many chemical admixtures may also be included in order to come up with these varied properties. Liquid normally water is added and mixed with this dry composite, this enables the concrete to be poured (shaped) before solidified...Cement, usually the Portland cement, and Cementitious materials like slag cement and fly ash are used as a binder in the aggregate. Many chemical admixtures may also be included in order to come up with these varied properties. Liquid normally water is added and mixed with this dry composite, this enables the concrete to be poured (shaped) before solidified and hardened to come up with a rock-hard strength through a process known as hydration. The liquid applied reacts with the cement, forming a bond with other components, finally forming a tough stone-like material. It has a comparatively high compressive strength, nevertheless much lesser tensile strength. It is against this that it is reinforced using other materials which are very strong in tension like steel. Processes that can damage the concrete include freezing of the trapped water. It is widely used in walls, pavements, brick/ block, foundation, bridges/ overpasses, footings for gates, and even boats. Some of the most famous concrete buildings or structures are like the Burj Khalifa (world's tallest building), the Panama Canal, the Hoover Dam, and the famous Roman Pantheon.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Components of Interpersonal Communication 1. Rationale Communication refers to the process of exchanging verbal as well as non verbal messages. It is a continuous process, whose pre-requisite is a message. The message must be conveyed via some medium to the recipient. It is also important that the message be understood by the recipient in the way the sender intended, within the time frame. Therefore communication is two way process which is incomplete without a feed back. The 12 angry men case presents an excellent case from which to consider the various concepts in interpersonal communication. 12 Angry Men is about twelve complete strangers who have been together to serve as jurors. The jury has the arduous task of determining whether an eighteen year old accused of murdering his own father is guilty or not. After the court room proceeding ends, the judge gives instruction to the twelve jurists. He reminds them of the fact that they have listened to the testimony and heard the law read and interpreted to them as it applies to the case, and that it is their duty to try and separate fact from non facts. The judge says that if they find a reasonable doubt in their minds regarding the guilt of the accused, then they must table to him a not guilty verdict. If, on the other hand, there is no reasonable doubt, they must find the accused guilty. The only condition is that their verdict must as a matter of fact be unanimous. The accused would be sentenced to death incase he is found guilty. As jurors commence their deliberations, the vote is initially 11 to 1, in favor of a guilty verdict. The single not guilty vote belongs to juror 8, Henry Fonda. Even though some are hostile and angry with Fonda, he insists that they give more time discussing what they have seen and heard during the courtroom proceedings. The characters in the 12 angry men movie that can best be used to analyze and to support the analysis of the communication concept in the situation includes Jury No. 3, 8 and 10;Lee J. Cobb, Ed Begley and Henry Fonda respectively. 2. Analysis Interpersonal communication is inherently relational and exists on a continuum. It also involves both verbal non verbal messages which can lead to development of interpersonal relationship. Thus the process of listening is an important aspect in verbal communication. It entails receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating and responding to transmitted stimulus. However as in the case of 12 angry men there are listening barriers that hinder interpersonal communication of the verbal type. The major dynamics of the interpersonal encounter in the 12 angry exist due to the fact that interpersonal communication does occur. The context in this situation includes a jurys room where 12 members with different orientations have come together to deliberate the fate of an accused 18 year old of murder. The sender, for instance jury No. 8, chooses the massage to communicate to the context. When he asks the others to defend their reason for casting a guilty vote, he is essentially trying to communicate the importance of being objective in the case. We find that Jury No. three and ten voted according to personal sentiments as opposed to examination of available evidence as well as the courtroom proceeding. Communication channels in interpersonal communication that relay messages take two distinct forms; direct and indirect channel. Direct channels are not only obvious but also directly recognized by the receiver/decoder. Direct channels relay verbal and non verbal information and are completely controlled by the sender. Verbal channels relay words, both written and spoken while non verbal channels relay body gestures, facial expression, temporal silence and eye contact. These are clearly used by three jurists in the case. Channel credibility refers to the trustworthiness and expertness of a channel as perceived by the receivers. It is directly linked to communicator and the audience. Channel feedback is the opportunity a channels provides for the recipient to respond immediately and thus affect the source of the message. In 12 angry men, the feedback is facilitated by the face to face communication. It is possible to deliberate over the issues efficiently and effectively. There are various influences on channel credibility. As far as interpersonal communication is concerned, information influence occurs because others responses convey information concerning the nature of the social setting and how the majority are in effect responding to the setting. On the other hand normative influence occurs when members tailor actions and attitudes to match the norms of the groups condition. The members of the majority in the twelve Angry Men for example, did more than thinking. This can be seen in the words of Jury 3 (Lee J. Cobb) when he asserted that This group has decided the defendant is guilty and anyone who believes differently is going against the norm of this group (Forsyth, 2009, p199). Normative influence causes members to think, feel and act in ways consistent with the norms of the group. At an interpersonal level, people are compelled to act according to the norms because a variety of negative consequences might result from non conformity .Given its emotional impact normative influence usually has tremendous influence on communication outcome. Western societies for instance, purport to value non conformity as well as independence. However in most circumstances dissent is not rewarded. Most of the times it is met with interpersonal influence which are social responses that encourage or force group to conform. Fonda appeal to the emotion and intellect of the other jurors when he says Its not easy to raise my hand and send a boy off to die without talking about it firstWere talking about somebodys life here. We cant decide in five minutes. Supposing were wrong? (Dirk, n.d,ÃâÃ ¶ 2.). Cobbs attitude towards the defendants is influences by painful memories that characterized his relationship with his son. He had a fist fight with his son prior to the case and have not set eyes on each other ever since. As a result he is angry not only at his son but also other children and young people in general. He collectively refers to them as rotten kids and automatically assumes that the defendant child is lying. Jurior No.10, Ed Begley, deep personal prejudices affected his initial decision. His hostility toward anyone who does not share his ethnic and social background leads him to believe that the defendant is lying, as he does not have the ability to tell the truth. You know how this people lie he says it is born in them (Dirk, n.d 1.). Juror eight and others eventually` convince Cobbs and Begley to cast a not guilty vote despite the fact that the verdict could be wrong. At the end of the movie the truth is still not known, what is known is only the fact that the jury voted. If the defendant is indeed innocent, then justice has been achieved. On the other hand if the defendant is in deed guilty then the jury lets a murderer go free. This is the reason why juror 8 does not answer to juror six, Edward Bins, question early in the film, supposing you talk us out of this and the kid did knife his father(Dirk, n.d 3). He does not answer because there exists no definite answer. The truth is often difficult to know and near the end of the movie, juror 8 reminds the others that he really does not know what the truth is and does not think that there exist a possibility that anyone discovering the truth. However the nine of them feel that the defendant is innocent, which is also probably wrong. He underscores the importance of reasonable doubt in American judicial system, as being the basis for letting the defendant go free. Interpersonal communication entails the use of both verbal and non verbal communication. The jurist engages in direct conversation both written and word of mouth. Verbal communication calls for active listening characterized by receiving, evaluating and understanding of the senders information. Fond is an active listener. In the explanation of the jurors voting, Juror number twelve suggest that other juror should try and convince Cobbs of the defendant guilt that he is wrong and we are right. (Dirk, n.d 4).Each of the jurors has a minute or two to think and respond to Fonds common sense questions. Fond in turn responds with well though influential arguments. Cobbs first asserts that his voting was objective and thus is devoid of personal feeling. He asserts that he only wants to discuss the facts of the case including how at 12.10pm the old man heard loud noise of a fight with the kid yelling out to his father : Im going to kill ya (Dirk, n.d). A second later the man heard a loud noise of the body as it hit the floor and as he ran to the door, he witnessed the boy running out of the house (Fonda appeal to the emotion and intellect of the other jurors when he says Its not easy to raise my hand and send a boy off to die without talking about it firstWere talking about somebodys life here. We cant decide in five minutes. Supposing were wrong? (Dirk, n.d 12.). Active listening is an important concept in verbal communication. After listening to Cobbs assertion of his facts, Fonda hopes to explain them during later deliberation about the evidence presented in court. In his endeavor to communicate his stand on the lameness of the old man assertion, Fonda requests a diagram of the apartment to investigate in examining the claim. He is able to show that the old man could not have run the long distance from his bedroom and down the stares. It was impossible for an old man who dragged one foot as a result of a stroke he had suffered, to run or walk such a distance in just 15 seconds. From this deliberation Juror 5 (Jack Kluggam) feels that he has ground to change his opinion and therefore in the ensuing vote, his is a not guilty vote. Begley is angry and exasperated: Boy, how do ya like that? Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦All right who was it? Come on I want to know.(Dirk, n.d). On the other hand Cobbs excuses Kluggam of being convinced by Fonda emotional appeal and bleeding oratory and says that he get convinced as a result of Fondas ability to tear his heart down by his talk about the kid as an underprivileged who could not help but turn to murder (Dirk, n.d). Discussion: The recommendations for the jury in this situation could employ for effective communication are avoiding subjective influences such as stereotypes and prejudices. For instance Begley would need to surmount his racist thoughts and sentiments that prevent him from completely interpreting the information presented. Stereotyping should be put at bay and emotions held in check. Active listening skills are also essential for effective interpersonal communication. Communication ought to be clear and precise and jurors ought to treat each other with respect. Members of the jury ought to participate in active listening, which entails receiving, understanding and expressing understanding and asking questions where need arises. Jury would have benefited from knowing each other during the formation stage. They jury in 12 angry men spend several days together but do not make any introductions apart from few jurors who share their occupation. Martin Balsm as the foreman ought to have commenced with introducing the group before administering the votes. Being unaware of each other names made it more difficult for the jurors to associate with each other and to appreciate their input into the discussion. Finally the leader is the ultimate person to ensure that recommendations are executed. Juror number one, who is the foreman may not the best individual as a leader.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The rise of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC is shrouded in mist of antiquity. It sprang in the region encompassing present day southern Iran and Iraq. A disparate group of tribes of Indo-European origin serving as vassals to the Medes controlled the region east of Tigris from their capital Ecbatana (near Hamadan). Here, around 650 BC the religion of Zoroastrianism was founded uniting the populace as an enlightened people into a political force.In 559 BC a devout Zoroastrian, Cyrus became the head of an obscure tribe and he set about uniting the other into a fighting force and in five years he had defeated the Medes and conquered all Persia. Lydia in Asia Minor and Babylon soon followed and by the time he died, as Cyrus the Great in 529 BC had founded the Persian Empire. After his death, his son Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525 BC. Indeed, the growth had been so rapid that rebellions sprang up and it fell upon CambysesÃ¢â¬â¢s son Darius (The Great) to quell these uprising s and institute satrapies or self-governing colonies across the empire.It was sheer administrative genius, military planning with a humanistic view that transformed disparate tribes into a formidable world power. By the 5th century Persian power extended from the river Indus to the shores of Mediterranean, North Africa, Thrace, Greece and Macedonia on the European continent. Following the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization large numbers of Greeks moved to Asia Minor and significant among them were three tribal groups, Aeolians, Dorian and Ionians who settled around Lydia and Caria establishing twelve cities which made up Ionia.These were independent states but they all acknowledged a common heritage. They enjoyed this status till they were conquered by the Lydian King Croesus. The Ionians were invited by Cyrus the Great to rebel against Lydian rule which was turned down forcing Cyrus to conquer Ionia in 540 BC and thereafter to be ruled by local satraps. During the rule of Dariu s the Great in 499 BC the cities of Ionia were incited to rebellion against the tyrants representing Persian rule and in 498 BC the Ionians with support from Athens and Eretria destroyed Sardis provoking the Persians into decisively beating them at the battle of Ephesus.The Ionian Rebellion was the first major conflict between the Greeks and the Persian Empire. Asia Minor was subdued but Darius the Great saw the myriad Greek states as a threat to the stability of the Empire and was bent upon conquering the whole of Greece. In 492 BC as a consequence of this rebellion first steps were taken to secure land routes to Greece by re-taking Thrace and forcing Macedonia to become a client state of Persia. In 491 BC Darius sent emissaries to Greek cities seeking their submission.Most complied with the terms but Athens put the ambassadors to death and in Sparta they were thrown down a well. Thus both cities were now effectively at war with Persia. Darius next dispatched a force which besieged and destroyed Noxos and Eretria and then confronted a vastly outnumbered Athenian army at Marathon. The ensuing battle of Marathon was a remarkable victory for Athens resulting in the withdrawal of the force to Asia Minor. A major campaign against Greece was now in preparation when Darius died in 486 BC leaving son Xerxes I in command.A rebellion in Egypt delayed progress on this front and preparations resumed once the rebellion had been quelled. By early 480 BC Xerxes was ready and marched his army across the Hellespont to Europe using pontoon bridges. Spartans and Athenians were also preparing for war and in 481 BC the Congress of Corinth was held at which confederation of the city states was formed and they thought that the invader would have to traverse the narrow pass at Thermopylae on way to southern Greece, which could be blocked by a smaller force.Furthermore, to prevent Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea a naval flotilla gathered to block strait of Artemisium. It was Au gust by the time the Persians arrived. This is a time of year when the Spartans celebrate the festival of Carneia and the Olympic games. A time of truce, during which war is forbidden but the urgency of the situation persuaded King Leonides I of Sparta to take 300 royal bodyguards and support troops as an advance expedition to block the pass and await the arrival of the main Spartan army.According to historian Herodotus the Spartans had consulted the Oracle of Delphi, (The high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Pythia) was credited with powers of prophecy O ye men who dwell in the streets of broad Lacedaemon! Either your glorious town shall be sacked by the children of Perseus, Or, in exchange, must all through the whole Laconian country Mourn for the loss of a king, descendant of great Heracles (Rawlinson translation of Herodotus VII, 242) In keeping with this prophecy Leonides I was convinced he was going to certain death.Once the Persians were sighted the Allies decide d to make a stand at Thermopylae. The Persians offered surrender terms and asked the Greeks to lay down their weapons to which Leonides 1 is said to have responded Ã¢â¬Å"come and get themÃ¢â¬ (Holland, p269Ã¢â¬â270). The Persians had mustered an overwhelming force even though historians donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to agree on a precise number. Modern scholars estimates vary from 25,000 (Hans Delbruck) to 100,000 -200,000 (Ulrich Wilcken and Tom Holland). There were 11,000 -12,000 Greeks in a combined force.Five days after arriving Xerxes launched a frontal attack. The Greeks formed a phalanx of overlapping shields and layered spear points across the width of the pass stopping the Persians from breaking through. This proved most effective as the wicker shields and shorter spears of the Persians prevented an effective engagement. On the second day too, the Persians fared no better but later that day the Persians got help from a traitor in locating a mountain path round the pass thereby o ut-flanking and encircling the Greeks.Some suggested withdrawal, but Leonides resolved to stay with the Spartans at the Pass forming a rear-guard to enable other allied contingents to withdraw. At dawn on the third day the Allies came forward to the wider part of the pass to engage the Persians. They fought with spears and short swords and Leonides 1 also perished in this assault. Thereafter the Persian surrounded the Greeks and rained down volley after volley of arrows opening up the pass to the Persians who proceeded to burn and sack cites which had not submitted. Xerxes then retreated back to Asia leaving a Satrap to complete the conquest.Thermopylae was undoubtedly a defeat for the Allies but is arguably the most famous battle of European ancient history. References Bradford, Ernle (2004). Thermopylae: The Battle for the West. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306813602. Cartledge, Paul (2006). Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World. Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. ISBN 1585 675660. Green, Peter (1996). The Greco-Persian Wars. University of California Press. ISBN 0520203135. Pressfield, Steven (1998). Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae. Doubleday. ISBN 0385492910.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Everyone go through their life and meeting new people every day. Sometimes there are some people who play an important role in our life which had made a biggest impact in our life. Fortunately, I met that person, Miss Stephanie. She is my form teacher when I was in Form One. I was a very naughty and bullheaded girl when I was in Form One. All teachers treated me so bad because they thought I would influence other good students. They often listed me in blacklist which all the bad studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ names were in it. I played truant and fought a lot with all those blacklisted friends when I was in school because birds of a feather flock together. My father and mother were so busy with their works so they did not have time to watch me out. There was no one who cared about me. I had freedom and I had a lot of pocket money which most of the child needed. I thought all those things were enough for me and I did not need to study. But someday, the person who changed my life appeared. That day, I was sleeping on the table. I felt people patted my shoulder. I woke and I saw a stranger who was young and blonde standing in front of me. She was Miss Stephanie, our new English teacher who was also our form teacher. She started paid attention to me and when I played trunk she would advise me and tell my parents to pay attention to me. However, my father and mother did not care about it and they still worked day and night. I started dislike Miss Stephanie because she was so annoying because she even came to my house someday when I did not go to school. Someday, my friend invited me to a shopping Centre and wanted me to join him for stealing. I took the challenge and we went into shop and started our plan. When we finished our plan, we went out from the shop immediately. Unfortunately, my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s dropped the things he stole. The shopkeeper looked at us and my friend accused me for stealing the things. I was in the daze and speechless. The shopkeeper started to scold me and wanted to call the police. Suddenly, Miss Stephanie appeared and told the truth to the shopkeeper. However, Miss Stephanie told the shopkeeper not to call the police. I was so grateful that she had helped us. After that, she scolded us for stealing things with a gentle tone. We promised her not to do it again and would listen to her advice after this. I started went to school and study hard. She taught me study every day after school patiently. Obviously I passed my test with flying colours. Besides, she also came to my house and advice my parents to be more concerned about me. She was like my second mother who taught me how to be a good girl and what should do and what should not do. Now, I become a girl who is so much better than before. My results improve a lot and now I become a useful person who can help a lame dog over a stile. Without Miss Stephanie, I think I would not become a person who I am now. I was so thankful that I could meet her. Although now she is no longer to be with me but I will always remember this person who had made a difference in my life.